conservation agriculture vs regenerative agriculture

Conservation Agriculture vs Regenerative Agriculture: What’s the difference?

While they share common principles, conservation agriculture (CA) and regenerative agriculture (RA) are not one and the same. Understanding their differences is crucial for making informed choices in the pursuit of more environmentally friendly farming practices. 

What is conservation agriculture?

Conservation agriculture is centred on three fundamental principles: 

  1. Minimal soil disturbance
  2. Diversified cropping systems
  3. The use of organic soil cover

This approach aims to maintain soil as a living ecosystem, promoting biodiversity and capturing carbon for improved water and nutrient use efficiency.

CA is versatile and adaptable to various terrains and climates, making it a globally embraced method. By avoiding intensive soil tillage, retaining permanent soil cover, and diversifying plant species, CA proves to be a sustainable, climate-smart farming system that enhances productivity while safeguarding soil health.

What is regenerative agriculture?

The definitions of regenerative agriculture are still a matter of debate, encompassing a set of practices or principles that transcend sustainability to revitalise ecosystems. It is a holistic farming system that seeks to restore soil health by increasing carbon sequestration, fostering nutrient cycling, and promoting overall ecosystem well-being.

Regenerative Agriculture aims not only to conserve, but also to build soil organic carbon by:

  1. Minimising soil disturbance
  2. Maintaining permanent soil cover
  3. Diversifying plant species
  4. Integrating livestock
  5. Rotational grazing

As such, RA offers a comprehensive approach to sustainable farming.

Carbon Drawdown & Regenerative Agriculture

What’s the difference between conservation agriculture and regenerative agriculture?

The difference between conservation agriculture and regenerative agriculture lies in their overarching goals and emphasis. 

Conservation agriculture primarily focuses on maintaining soil health through three key principles: minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover, and species diversification. It aims to conserve and enhance soil quality while promoting sustainable crop production. 

On the other hand, regenerative agriculture builds upon these principles by actively seeking to restore and build soil health. It also includes livestock integration to help achieve these objectives.

RA strives to rejuvenate ecosystems, increase carbon sequestration, and foster holistic practices that go beyond conservation. 

While the approaches have much in common, regenerative agriculture takes a more proactive stance in promoting overall ecological well-being, envisioning a farming system that actively contributes to environmental restoration. In a way, conservation agriculture can be seen as a more accessible starting point or entry into regenerative agriculture. 


You may also be interested in: What’s the difference between sustainable agriculture and regenerative agriculture?

Impact on soil health and fertility 

Both regenerative and conservation agriculture systems aim to enhance soil fertility and health by preserving or restoring soil organic carbon (SOC). Higher SOC levels result in improved soil structure, water infiltration, nutrient availability, and increased crop yield. The diverse crop rotations in these systems contribute to a well-balanced and resilient ecosystem, protecting against extreme climatic events.

Implementing minimal soil disturbance, keeping the surface covered, and ensuring diverse crop rotations are the cornerstones of success for both systems. These practices not only safeguard against soil erosion but also promote sustainable and economically viable agriculture.

Conservation agriculture vs regenerative agriculture: which is right for you?

In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture, the choice between conservation agriculture and regenerative agriculture boils down to the specific goals of a farming system. While conservation agriculture is focused on retaining soil health, regenerative agriculture goes a step further by actively restoring and building soil health and incorporating livestock. 

As we navigate the challenges of meeting the world’s growing food demand, both practices offer hope for a regenerative future. Whether through Conservation or Regenerative Agriculture, the path to a greener, more sustainable tomorrow lies in our hands—and in the soil beneath our feet. As David Montgomery, renowned Professor of Geomorphology, said: “Soil is lost not because we farm, it’s lost because of how we farm.”

At RegenZ, we have been forging the future of conservation and regenerative farming throughout Southern Africa. We provide agricultural technical services and facilitate the supply of sustainable agricultural inputs for the commercial and smallholder agriculture sectors. Please get in touch to find out more about our integrated products and services.

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About the Author: Alex Platt

Alex is Business Development Manager at RegenZ. He's inspired by the potential of regenerative farming and takes a special interest in the technology and products that are moving agriculture in a more sustainable direction.